The digital working papers (e-WP) begun in early 2011, with the purpose of publishing electronic documents which result from research developed by the resident researchers and by the researchers who collaborate with the Observatory as associate members. A working paper can be a text based in theoretical reflexion, in methodological discussion or the presentation of empirical results. These texts are essentially works in progress, being the result of research conducted in the area of Political Studies. The texts proposed for publication are reviewed by the Editorial Council, in order to guarantee the standards of quality and scientific relevance of the works produced by the Political Observatory. To have access to the Working Papers, click on the corresponding image.
WORKING PAPER #74 – Duarte Carrasquinho
A LUTA ARMADA REVOLUCIONÁRIA EM PORTUGAL: UMA HISTÓRIA AO LUAR
Portugal lived in a dictatorship from 1923 to 1974. Firstly like a military dictatorship and later, after 1933, with the designation of “Estado Novo” [New State]. During this time, many political organizations fought clandestinely against the current regime, standing out the Portuguese Communist Party, founded in 1921. In 1967, the League of Unity and Revolutionary Action (LUAR) was born. With unique characteristics, compared to the organizations created until then, the LUAR executed singular revolutionary actions of an almost cinematographic imaginary.
WORKING PAPER #73 – Tiago Rego Ramalho
UMA VISÃO SISTÉMICA DA SOCIEDADE E DOS PARTIDOS POLÍTICOS: ROBERT MICHELS E O OLIGÁRQUICO-ELITISMO
Western Modern Democracy, as we know it today, is inseparable from a civilizational freedom – Freedom of Association – as John Stuart Mill affirmed in the XIX century. Political parties, with regard to the representativeness of citizens, play a preponderant role in the Democratic model, which is unanimously accepted by Western culture. Are they useful and viable in the face of the current paradigm, responsible and representative of their fellow citizens?
WORKING PAPER #72 – Fátima Lampreia Carvalho
POLÍTICA COMO A CONSTRUÇÃO DO POVO VERSUS O FENÔMENO DAS MULTIDÕES COMO A MORTE DA POLÍTICA: AS PERSPECTIVAS TEÓRICAS DE LACLAU E NEGRI
This article contrasts the idea of people and populism in On Populist Reason by Ernesto Laclau (2005) and the idea of multitude in Multitude: War and Democracy in the Age of Empire by Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt (2005). This dialogue between political science categories aims to explore the emergence of the universal actor in Laclau’s post-structuralist approach in contrast with the emergence of the multitude in the Deleuzian approach of immanence, preferred by Negri and Hardt.
WORKING PAPER #71 – Cristiana Oliveira
NATION BRANDING: O PODER DAS IDEIAS NAS RELAÇÕES INTERNACIONAIS CONTEMPORÂNEAS
Given its recent, multidimensional and multidisciplinary nature, the concept of nation branding is little explored in the field of International Relations, although the number of states using nation branding strategies is increasing and more diverse. Its main objective is to create, manage and improve the image of a particular state through the use of branding and marketing techniques in order to become more attractive and competitive internationally. This working paper aims to introduce the concepts of nation brand and nation branding, identify the main characteristics and objectives of nation branding strategies, as well as the role played by several partners in the development of these strategies.
WORKING PAPER #70 - Maria Ejarque Albuquerque
MALI PEACE PROCESS. CONSTITUTIONAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE ALGIERS PEACE PROCESS AGREEMENT
More than half of the world´s constitutions have been written or revised in the past two decades, often following a crisis (civil war or a volatile violent political transition), requiring international intervention, under the auspices of the United Nations. This constitutions are also used as a peace agreement or a provisional administration agreement containing transitional power sharing arrangements are often established until the necessary conditions for both constitution-making and constitution drafting processes and for the holding of free and fair elections are met. Therefore, the purpose of this essay is to analyze how constitutions are often used as peace agreements.
WORKING PAPER #69 - Marina Finger
A LIDERANÇA E O GÊNERO NA MEDIA POLÍTICA BRASILEIRA: DILMA ROUSSEFF E AS ELEIÇÕES DE 2014
In the political area, the feminine empowering is still a very delicate question, being a very masculine area yet. The leadership prototypes theories help us to understand the walls that the female gender needs to face to reach such positions, because the assumptions on the gender can put in women in a leadership role the weight of gender incongruity. The objective of this paper is to identify the way that the media has treated the candidature to the presidency of Dilma Rouseff in the presidential campaign of 2014, in order to evaluate the presence of role incongruity in the outlook vision that the media wanted to pass.
WORKING PAPER #68 - Jorge Botelho Moniz
O ESTUDO DOS ASSUNTOS RELIGIOSOS PELA CIÊNCIA POLÍTICA
In the present work, we intend to analyze the validity of the assertion that political science has been ignoring religious themes in the studies of political events, in particular since the end of the 20th Century. In order to do so, we examine the content of political science periodicals publications from a group of European countries. Our observation period is between 2010 and 2015, and our assessment indicates that despite political scientists insist on underestimating the relevance of religious matters and/or the periodicals offer poor space to such themes, the frame is not so negative as the state of art denounced.
WORKING PAPER #67 - Alberto Cunha
PAVING THE NEW SILK ROAD: THE EVOLUTION OF THE SINO-GERMAN STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP
The emergence of China as a global economic leader has led to talks of a “New Silk Road” that the Chinese government wants to recreate in Eurasia, and that connects EU and China through Eurasia. This paper will focus on the bilateral relation between China and the undisputed EU economic leader, Germany, given the continued absence of a common EU foreign policy on China. The investigation seeks to identify the changes in the political approach to this bilateral relation since its beginning in 1972, as well as the advantages that the two states seek to draw from it.
WORKING PAPER #66 - Orlando Coutinho
REPRESENTAÇÃO POLÍTICA E DEMOCRACIA: UMA ANÁLISE DO PANORAMA POLÍTICO CONTEMPORÂNEO A PARTIR DE HANNA PITKIN
There are a number of recent political events that justify revisiting thinkers who have addressed the issue of representation in global democratic systems. This Working Paper aims to construct an argument that, through a reflective interpretation on Hanna Pitkin’s “The Concept of Representation”, provides a “justification” that opens up a number of debates about some of the most recent historical episodes, highlighting the need to continue to discuss the challenges facing democracy today, and pointing out some prospective questions about the ongoing debates and about the ones to come.
WORKING PAPER #65 - José Pedro Almeida
A EVOLUÇÃO DO DIREITO DE SUFRÁGIO NA HISTÓRIA CONSTITUCIONAL PORTUGUESA
Like with many other legal and political prerogatives, also the evolution of the right to vote can´t be understood disconnected from the historical context that involves it. The Portuguese case isn´t exception. Also, the political and constitutional history are connected; and the successive Constitutions, not being immune to external influences, are equally a reflection of the historical context that emerged and aimed to project. Made of advances and retreats, the uncertain evolution of suffrage in Portugal can therefore contribute to explain the “constitutional legitimacy crisis” diagnosed by some authors.
WORKING PAPER #64 - Patrícia Tomás
AS MOTIVAÇÕES QUE LEVAM OS JOVENS A ADERIR AOS PARTIDOS POLÍTICOS EM PORTUGAL
The relationship of young people with politics is a subject increasingly studied in Portugal and also in other world regions, given the importance of young people in the future of democratic society. This study aims to understand the motivations that lead young people to join political parties in Portugal, more specifically if young people decide to join in a party organization because of moral, social or professional reasons, if the family influences the membership of young people and if the moment of membership matches with electoral acts.
WORKING PAPER #63 - Emmanuel Cortês
PORQUÊ O CONFLITO ARMADO EM MOÇAMBIQUE? ENQUADRAMENTO TEÓRICO, DOMINÂNCIA E DINÂMICA DE RECRUTAMENTO NOS PARTIDOS DA OPOSIÇÃO
After 16 years of civil war, from 1977 to 1992, between the Mozambican government led by the one-party state, FRELIMO, and the anti-communist faction known as Mozambican National Resistance (RENAMO), was signed in Rome the General Agreements of Peace that ceased the armed conflict. Although civil war has officially ended in 1992, Mozambique has seen an increase of armed violence between the government led by FRELIMO and RENAMO.
WORKING PAPER #62 - João Sampaio
A EVOLUÇÃO DOS CONFLITOS E DA ORDEM MUNDIAL NUM MUNDO MULTIPOLAR
The World Order is a concept in constant reformulation that has lost what characterized it when it was established through the Westphalia Agreements. The conflicts also went through mutations. This study aims at establishing a connection between the contemporary World Order and the evolution of conflicts. The threats to the stability of the World Order contribute to its present disorder and evince how conflicts dissociated from its clausewitzian concept. The crisis in Ukraine was the case of study selected to understand how these threats impact the stability of the World Order and evince the conflicts evolution.
WORKING PAPER #61 - Verónica Ferreira
REPRESENTAÇÕES MEDIÁTICAS DA “NOITE QUE MUDOU A ALEMANHA”1 : A VIOLÊNCIA SEXUAL COMO VEÍCULO DE ISLAMOFOBIA?
The New Year’s Eve incidents in the German city of Cologne sparked a special media interest. The information that was published by social media in the days that followed the event nourished a heated discussion about the European migration and asylum concession policies, which began in mid-2015 with the increase of the refugee flow from the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa that cross the Mediterranean Sea with the aim of arriving in Europe. The media representations of this episode could be inserted in a specific spatio-temporal context that we want to analyse.
WORKING PAPER #60 - Ana Campina
(E/I)MIGRANTES E “RETORNADOS” EM PORTUGAL: DIREITOS HUMANOS, GEOPOLÍTICA E OS FLUXOS MIGRATÓRIOS (DO ESTADO NOVO À DEMOCRACIA)
This Working Paper has the purpose to approach a fundamental subject, the Human Rights, which requires an initial conceptual explanation that allows us to understand other adjacent areas, on an elemental synergy with other phenomena of the recent history of Portugal – from the New State to the present. Thinking and addressing migration in Portugal leads us to the necessary human rights matters, to Geopolitics and to a social phenomenon that we lived at the beginning of Democracy which currently isn’t always treated or valued as it should be: those who were considered Returnees.
WORKING PAPER #59 - Hugo Ferrinho Lopes
OS CONCEITOS DE LIBERDADE E SEGURANÇA EM THOMAS HOBBES: CONJUNÇÃO OU DISJUNÇÃO?
The relation between freedom and security has been subjected to several debates within social sciences and, particularly, in political science and the theory of international relations fields. Without knowing exactly what they are and in what they consist, the concepts of freedom and security are perceived has unalienable rights, capable of capture the attention of masses and mobilize its action around a specific purpose. In this sense, we will answer the following problematic: In what consist the freedom and security concepts in the politic thought of Thomas Hobbes?
WORKING PAPER #58 – Ana Rita Dias
NACIONALISMO E DESAFIOS CONTEMPORÂNEOS
The traditional way of political organization, the Nation State, has been more and more challenged by the deepening of the international cooperation, in major part by phenomens as Globalization or the broadcasting of cosmopolitan ideals . Could it will still speak of nationalism in the contemporary Western world, or will society evolve towards a true global community? Taking into account the importance of feelings of belonging and individual identification in maintaining sovereignty, it is relevant to analyze the extent to which these emotions already transcend – or not – the nation-state. Are we on the verge of creating a truly global individual identity?
WORKING PAPER #57 - Tiago Rego Ramalho
PÓLIS, PARTICIPAÇÃO POLÍTICA E AS MULHERES: JOHN STUART MILL
As one of the most influential thinkers of the Western Civilization, John Stuart Mill developed a wide work on the most diverse scientific domains. The defense of women’s rights that resulted in their emancipation was one of the greatest milestones in the English thinker’s life. In a specific context like the one that existed in the first half of the XIX century in England and in most of western societies, the concept of Woman was still very archaic. Stuart Mill accepted to face the problem.
WORKING PAPER #56 - Ricky Apolo
OS DESAFIOS DA SEGURANÇA COMUNITÁRIA AFRICANA: ENTRE A RETÓRICA DISCURSIVA E A PRÁTICA POLÍTICOMILITAR, QUID DO PAPEL DA UNIÃO AFRICANA NOS PROCESSOS DE PEACEKEEPING E PEACEBUILDING NO PANORAMA CONTINENTAL?
The complexity of the security landscape in Africa requires from the organizations that integrate it concerted and multisectoral approaches with long term and broad range impacts. This working paper intends to examine the security engineering the African political actors have conceived in the spectrum of the African Union with the intention of eradicating the long epidemic conflicts that have been weakening the African rebirth process.
WORKING PAPER #55 - Joana Lemos e Silva
O RETORNO DA ALIANÇA CELESTIAL: INTERDEPENDÊNCIA ECONÓMICA E A QUESTÃO ENERGÉTICA
The Bouleversement that was created by the conflict, which started in 2014 in Ukraine, overthrew the President Yanukovich, intensified the relations on the area, and elevated the interested States to a distinguished level on the international relations. For these reasons is decisive to analyze the levels of economic interdependence between Russia and China. This interdependence is important because of the economic constrains that Russia suffered after the imposition of sanctions to the energy sector – essential to Russia. It is also important to study the political consequences that follow the economic interests of the two countries.
WORKING PAPER #54 - Rodrigo Oliveira
COMUNICAÇÃO, OPINIÃO PÚBLICA E FORMAÇÃO DE PREFERÊNCIAS ELEITORAIS
Some people look at the public opinion as the sum of individual opinions, as the reflection of the majority’s beliefs, as the opinion shaped by the media or by the elites or simply as fiction. This essay will focus on the third idea referred above, which implies public opinion is defined by the opinion shaped by the Media and elites. The most important contributions to this topic were Walter Lippmann’s Public Opinion, John Zaller’s The Nature and Origins of Mass Opinion and the article Monica Lewinsky’s Contribution to Political Science.
WORKING PAPER #53 – João Ricardo Catarino
COMPETITIVIDADE FISCAL EM ECONOMIA ABERTA
The international tax competition is a phenomenon that has met quick developments in recent years. It influences the model of action of States and contemporary government. Some international reference institutions have sought to adopt principles to minimize the negative impact of these, such as the European Union and the OECD.
WORKING PAPER #52 – Ricardo Cabral Fernandes
A CRISE E O ROMPER DO ROTATIVISMO: O CASO DO SYRIZA NA GRÉCIA
The current economic and financial crisis is changing the political chess of the european continent. If, in one hand we see the rise of extreme right-wing parties, in the other we see the fortification of radical left parties. The auterity policies and the structural reforms of neoliberal nature imposed to the intervened states, and also to those who weren´t, have led to serious economic,political and social consequences in the European peoples , creating new political phenomena that deserve to be studied.
WORKING PAPER #51 – Mariana Carmo Duarte
CULTURA, PLURALIDADE E DEMOCRACIA ARTIGO BASEADO EM APOCALÍPTICOS E INTEGRADOS, DE UMBERTO ECO
Having in consideration the mass culture and the cultural industries, Umberto Eco proposed, in 1964, in his book “Apocalyptics and Integrated” a division of both categories contained in the title of the work. If, in one hand, the “apocalyptics” considered that the massification of the production and cultural consumption caused the loss of the essence of artistic creation, of a certain “aura” spoked by Walter Benjamin, in the other hand, the “integrated” believed that we were before huge intelectual advances, before a genuine and creator cultural democratization.
WORKING PAPER #50 – Catarina Sampaio Rolim
DIVULGANDO A CULTURA DO OBSERVATÓRIO POLÍTICO: OS CURSOS
The formation in key-areas of knowledge in Political Sciences and International Relations is subjacent to the goals of the Political Observatory since its creation. From diplomacy to autarchic management, through communication, safety, politics and human rights, O.P. has organized to the present eleven advanced training courses. These are intended not only to its associated menbers but also to all the professionals and students of diferent areas who show interest in deepen their knowledges. They have a group of experts whose quality of tuition is a garantee of the sucess all the initial and renewed editions had.
WORKING PAPER #49 – João C. Bandeira
DIFERENDO INTERNACIONAL: DOKDO OU TAKESHIMA?
The follow research will focus on the Japan – Republic of Korea conflict, regarding the matter of the Liancourt Rocks, addressing the historical background, the Peace Treaty of San Francisco 1991, the arguments of legitimized sovereignty presented by both states upon the Liancourt Rocks, the relationship between the USA, Japan and the South Korea during the Cold War, the treaties of joint exploitation signed by Japan and South Korea, enhancement of the EEZ projects, the changes in the political systems of both Japan and South Korea and the consequences of these changes .
WORKING PAPER #48 – André Saramago
THE COLONIZATION OF CRITIQUE: HABERMAS’ OVERRELIANCE ON SYSTEMS THEORY AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR CRITICAL THEORY
Habermas’ critical theory has had a significant influence in international relations and social theory, especially in what concerns the appropriation of his reflections on discourse ethics. However, this appropriation has not sufficiently engaged with the wider aspects of Habermas’ project, namely his distinction between the societal realms of the lifeworld and the system, which arises from his attempted synthesis between Parsonian systems theory and critical theory. My argument in this article is that there are fundamental problems with Habermas’ usage of systems theory. Most significant, Habermas appropriates its dichotomous conceptions of society with significant implications for critical theory. Namely, such appropriation diminishes critical theory’s capacity to provide adequate frameworks for a better understanding of human societies and their development, making it unable to fulfil its critical role of providing adequate means of orientation for social movements in their emancipatory struggles.
WORKING PAPER #47 – Filipa J. C. Brandão
THE URBAN MILIEU AND ITS SLAYING
Exposed to everything from earthquakes, floods, fires to smart bombs, cities are among the most durable artifacts. Not understood as ephemeral, buildings are meant to outlive life itself, making its destruction per se a shocking spectacle of violence. However, a deliberated and planned destruction of the city offers a new form of political violence. Urbicide then emerges as a pondered and aimed killing of the city, and of its built environment.
WORKING PAPER #46 – Camila Rodrigues
PARTICIPAÇÃO E QUALIDADE DA DEMOCRACIA NO PORTUGAL DEMOCRÁTICO: O CASO DO REALOJAMENTO NO BAIRRO DE SANTO ANTÓNIO, EM CAMARATE
This paper results from exploratory empirical work done in the context of a PhD thesis on political science in the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities of the New University of Lisbon (FCSH-UNL). The thesis focuses on the study of the impact of the democracy’s quality’s participation. It analyses the residents’ participation in housing policy, in Portugal, since the Revolutionary period. The topic’s interest results from the recognition of the democratic transition’s importance, with revolutionary character, as occurred in Portugal, which began the third wave of democratisations and allowed a reconfiguration of the power relations and social hierarchies.
WORKING PAPER #45 – Victor Correia
A DICOTOMIA PÚBLICO-PRIVADO
The public-private dichotomy is the foundation of the liberal ideas, of the historical philosophical conception of tolerance, and of the partisan political ideologies. The goal of this paper is the analysis of this dichotomy from the point of view of this concept, and to show that there is a lack of consistency on her own while dichotomy, due to ambiguous meaning of its concepts. As a result, we can’t define what is private and public, due to the fact that we can’t define the boundaries between public and private life, and on the other hand, we can’t define the boudaries between public and private life, due to the fact that we can’t define what is public and private.
WORKING PAPER #44 – Paulo Cunha Dinis
GEÓRGIA E A UCRÂNIA UNIDAS PELO PASSADO SOVIÉTICO E O SECESSIONISMO INTERNO
On the occasion of the presentation of my master’s thesis entitled “The autonomy of Georgia and the Russian foreign policy. An analysis of the Caucasus in consideration of Theory of Regionalization” in December 2013 at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities of the New University of Lisbon tried to understand and expose the geopolitical reality that fits in the Democratic republics of the South Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia and Azerbaijan) in comparison with the foreign policy of the Russian Federation that Vladimir Putin has been developing in the last four presidential terms of the Russian Federation. The crisis of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea fits the growing socio-political conflict in the Democratic Republic of Ukraine as Georgia was faced with Russian interventional support for the secessionism in the regions of South Ossetia and Abkhazia. The problem is characterized by the diversity of positions, goals and instruments that strategies insert to the external relations.
WORKING PAPER #43 – António Horta Fernandes
CONCEITO ESTRATÉGICO DE DEFESA NACIONAL (CEDN) OU CONCEITO ESTRATÉGICO DE SEGURANÇA NACIONAL (CESN)? UM FALSO DILEMA
A new Strategic Concept of National Defense (CEDN), which maintained the previous terminology (CEDN) was approved. However, the foregoing discussion struggled for the appropriate concept terminology. One part, which has avenged, contended that it should retain the current terminology. Others fight back that the terminology should be altered by inserting the word «security», or even changing the name of the concept, eliminating the word «defense», the concept should now be referred to the Strategic Concept of National Security (CESN). Already anticipating the answer we believe that both sides were wrong and continue to make mistakes because the concept should take the name of National Strategic Concept (CEN).
WORKING PAPER #42 – Vítor Ramon-Fernandes
RAYMOND ARON: UM CONSTRUTIVISTA “AVANT LA LETTRE”?
Raymond Aron was born in March 14, 1905, but he raised questions that were only the object of attention after his death in 1983, with the so-called “Third debate” in International Relations that is essentially an epistemological debate. The truth is that most of those questions raised appear nowadays in constructivist ideas and, for that reason, I believe it is possible to argue on the existence of an embrionary constructivism in Raymond Aron’s thought. That is what led me to consider Raymond Aron, in a generic or tendential way, as a constructivist “avant la lettre”.
WORKING PAPER #41 – Carlos M. J. Alves
O ENVOLVIMENTO DEMOCRÁTICO DOS MOVIMENTOS SOCIAIS
In the rich and complex democratic roadmap, the social movements patent their beneficial character of participation, assuming themselves as the heralders of the democraticity.
At these times those movements instill dynamism to that roadmap, constituting, not as a shortcut or accidental alternative, but the unavoidable way of a rough path, in wich democracy gets strengthened and preferably susceptible.
WORKING PAPER #40 – Pedro Sobral e Rui Coelho
POLITIPÉDIA – REPERTÓRIO PORTUGUÊS DE CIÊNCIA POLÍTICA
The Portuguese political science, although young, has really evolved towards increasing extent and depth. It is in this context that is justified the need for a Repertory of Portuguese Political Science, giving access to scientific knowledge of the area, facilitating its progress. This working paper presents the project named Politipédia that is in development in the context of the activities of the Observatório Político, exposing the planned lines of intervention as well as its current challenges and potential.
WORKING PAPER #39 – Marta Ceia
A COMUNICAÇÃO ESTRATÉGICA DA NATO
During the Cold War, efforts and activities connected with communications were widely developed in order to win the war of narratives in what was the quintessential clash of ideologies and influences of the twentieth century. After the end of the confrontation the capabilities of this type have been dismantled. Only after September 11th with the start of a new and forced ideological competition, is that the concepts and practices matured and institutionalized during the Cold War were rehabilitated. Information and communication retook its leading role as instruments of power used to influence attitudes and behaviors of the audiences.
WORKING PAPER #38 – Alexandra Martins
A FIGURA DO HERÓI NA POLÍTICA – PODER E INFLUÊNCIA
The hero figure has been used in politics for a long time. Powerful model and archetype, transcends eras and fashions, ideologies and types of government. This short paper aims to describe and present a portion of the dissertation and master’s degrees in Political Science, later published in book form. It is thus a different approach from the hero usually encountered and that is why it is urgent and relevant to study.
WORKING PAPER #37 – Alain Montalvão Lantoine
GESTÃO FRONTEIRIÇA E POLÍTICAS DE MIGRAÇÃO E ASILO DA UNIÃO EUROPEIA NO PÓS PRIMAVERA ÁRABE: O RISCO DE UM DOUBLE SHIFTING OUT
Within the master’s thesis entitled “The Impact of Arab Spring on Migration and Asylum Policies of the European Union in the Mediterranean: Mare Nostrum”, presented to the University of Coimbra before the events of Lampedusa occurred in October of this year, I came across with a subject of major interest in the field of management of EU external borders: the growing influence of private enterprises in the border management of a European Union model in full political and institutional transformation. Setting the base for research on the concept of Shifting Up and Out of Sandra Lavenex, I encountered some of the facts rarely disclosed by the national and international news agencies, which led me to develop the concept of Double Shifting Out.
WORKING PAPER #36 – José Campino
SISTEMA POLÍTICO CHINÊS UM REGIME PÓS-TOTALITÁRIO
One of the most interesting cases for the study of non-democratic regimes is the case of China. The country has been the subject of several studies and speculations. In this work, what I’ll analyze is the Chinese political system taking into account the evolution of the system since the 40s of the twentieth century. Based on the theory of Linz and Stepan about undemocratic regimes I’ll apply the concepts of “totalitarian” and “post-totalitarian” regime to the case of China (Linz and Stepan 1996). So, I’ll try to show that the Chinese regime evolves from a totalitarian regime to a post-totalitarian regime. Additionally I’ll examine briefly the Wigell’s theory about hybrid regimes and explain why, in my point of view, China does not meet the requirements to be considered as such.
WORKING PAPER #35 – Catarina Gama
LÍNGUA PORTUGUESA: OLHARES EM PERSPETIVA
For those who have contact with a Portuguese native speaker for the first time, there are many reactions that can be expected; usually, the first one is “Brazil!”, the second one or the third one is “oh Portuguese! What is the difference between Portuguese and Spanish?” Another is “oh Portugal! Cristiano Ronaldo!” or even, “seems like Russian!” among others. In fact, for those who are Portuguese native speakers, learn Portuguese or know the countries which have Portuguese as official language, the Portuguese language is usually presented to them as the language of Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé e Principe, East Timor. Portuguese is for some the language of the countries of CPLP, (Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries), and PALOP, (Portuguese-speaking African Countries).
WORKING PAPER #34 - Manuel Filipe Canaveira
GRÉCIA MODERNA: O REGRESSO AO TÁRTARO?
That modern Greece is modern seems a tautology. But, after all, what does it mean? It means the reason of being for modern Greece is confused with the rationale of the Western world? The question can be quite embarrassing. Modern Greece has become – a little later than expected – a State (which never formed a state) and a modern nation, free from the strongholds of Muslim and Christian feudalism, and seems to want to become free, getting a modern consciousness of itself and offering the show of an almost real society. Greece drives to – and lets itself be driven by – the great powers while maintains a very conflictual relationship with its own power of will.
WORKING PAPER #33 - Cristiana Silva
PORQUE QUER E DEVE O IRÃO TER A BOMBA NUCLEAR?
The historic date of February 11th, 1979, marks the end of the Pahlavi monarchy and the birth of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Conservative, rational and pragmatic, Tehran’s foreign policy makes its nuclear ambitions a fundamental instrument for the pursuit of its national interests. This essay aims to analyze the outcome of the recent presidential elections in the country, arguing that the appointment of Hassan Rowhani as the new president of Iran, does not necessarily imply a change in the conduct and execution of foreign policy of the theocratic regime..
WORKING PAPER #32 - Andreia Nunes
NA SEMIPERIFERIA DO SISTEMA-MUNDO: PORTUGAL E A “MODERNIZAÇÃO”
Portugal assumes a semi-peripheral position in international society, from the perspective of the theory of Wallerstein’s world-system, embedded in a structuralist approach to International Relations and based on the paradigm of dependency. Thus, in a system where each country has defined roles and functions the concept of modernization is ambiguous: does it serve to “cover up” the primary objectives of the system? What is the scope of States’ action in this case of Portugal in a system with a defined hierarchy, in which the country has specific functions to take?
WORKING PAPER #31 - Raul Braga Pires
CONSEQUÊNCIAS DA QUEDA DO REGIME DE MUAMMAR KADHAFI
The fall of the regime of Colonel Muammar Gaddafi after four decades of domination that extended the entire sub-region of the Sahel and West Africa, came through the destabilization caused, demonstrate how important his money, charisma and leadership were in keeping balances that seem inconceivable today. Surely soon, Gaddafi might receive post mortem the nickname of “The Peacemaker”, having been named the “King of Kings” in 2008, at a summit of the African Union, in the presence of various African traditional leaders.
WORKING PAPER #30 -João Mártires
ESTAGIAR EM CIÊNCIA POLÍTICA: 2 PROGRAMAS, 6 FASES, 20 ESTAGIÁRIOS
The Political Observatory extended the range of possibilities. Made room to the scientific and academic intervention in Social Sciences key areas: Political Science and International Relations. Simultaneously, assumed the purpose of enabling the creation of new ideas and alternatives, a civic and social contribution by supporting the integration of young undergraduates, graduates and masters in the work market, giving them the opportunity to participate in a work context of this scientific association.
WORKING PAPER #29 - Luís Sargento
A POLÍTICA AGRÍCOLA COMUM NA CONSTRUÇÃO EUROPEIA
The current shortage of resources in Europe raises food resources to its actual size. Thus, the European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) remains an area of basic research. While research area of interest to political science, economics, finance, environment and sustainability present since the beginnings of the European Economic Community (EEC), has become one of the most played in the European institutions.
WORKING PAPER #28 – Cláudia Madruga
A PRIVATIZAÇÃO DA SEGURANÇA NA AMÉRICA LATINA E O IMPACTO DA MESMA NA DEMOCRACIA DA REGIÃO
The emergence and proliferation of private security companies (ESP) in Latin America, in the last three decades occurred in a context of economic neo-liberalization together with the inability of the state to ensure reliable security vis-à-vis an increase of criminal violence. The privatization and commodification of security in Latin America has added yet another element to an entire network of agents of violence in the region and raises questions about the way in which society and, consequently, democracy in the region may be affected.
WORKING PAPER #27 – Luís Bernardino
O NOVO PARADIGMA DA PREVENÇÃO DE CONFLITOS EM ÁFRICA
The conflictuality is one of the problems that concerns the most States and international organizations today. In Africa, this cyclical reality has led states and regional organizations to develop mechanisms for alert and response, creating structures to support post-conflict strategies in order to recover from this scourge and societies develop, regionally, capabilities that enable a strategic prevention of conflicts.
WORKING PAPER #26 - Graça Moniz
A ADESÃO DA UNIÃO EUROPEIA À CONVENÇÃO EUROPEIA DOS DIREITOS DO HOMEM – UMA HISTÓRIA SEM FIM
The accession of the European Union to the European Convention on Human Rights has given rise to much debate and led many to reach for their pens. The starting point to understand the issue is the multilevel system of protection of fundamental rights in the European continent. The idea of a European catalogue of fundamental rights, featuring a kind of common European heritage, protected by an independent court, flourished in the fertile ground of a Europe profoundly devastated by two Great Wars.
WORKING PAPER #25 - Catarina Santos
O GÉNERO COMO FACTOR DETERMINANTE DO DISCURSO POLÍTICO POR UMA LEITURA CRÍTICA
Women remain a minority in positions of power and decision. The political sphere, as representative of maximum power in democratic states is of crucial importance, since it has the role of representing all citizens, men and women. However, we continue to find a numerical discrepancy between sexes, especially considering the fact that women and men finish their training, often superior, in terms of supposed equality. And Portugal is no exception in this clash of realities.
WORKING PAPER #24 - Liliana de Almeida
A CIDADANIA E O SERVIÇO NACIONAL DE SAÚDE
Analyses and political speeches have mentioned that reforms in health must be centered in the figure of the citizen, renouncing those made around the system. Here we try to determine whether the process of Citizenship in Health has followed a continued and progressive path, if the strategic objectives for the Healthcare sector presented by the Constitutional Governments from 2002 to 2011 and its measures used significantly reflected citizenship as a domain.
WORKING PAPER #23 - Diogo Paeta
A BIOÉTICA GLOBAL
The professional regulatory system known as “medical ethics” has revealed itself one of the most visionary creations, and a socially valuable medical profession. Their beneficial effect has extended beyond the relations practitioner/patient, helped shape several key factors as humanitarian and equality in political and legislative institutions worldwide. The continued existence of medical ethics as a normative, professional and influential system, is being challenged by the universal Human Rights. The UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics will be a intersection point in this process.
WORKING PAPER #22 -Gilberto Pereira
O DESENHO CONSTITUCIONAL E A PRESIDENCIALIZAÇÃO DO SISTEMA DE GOVERNO
In the beginning of the second semester of 2012, Angola’s general elections were surrounded by moments of enthusiasm and expectation. Enthusiasm because this was the second consecutive elections, creating a context for potential constitutional and political regularity. Expectation for elections under the auspice of a new Constitution of the Republic of Angola.
WORKING PAPER #21 - Joana Yemi Pereira
A ÁSIA ORIENTAL NO PÓS-GUERRA FRIA: ENTRE A RIVALIDADE E A COOPERAÇÃO
The fall of the Berlin wall did not have in Asia the same immediate impact that Europe did. Unlike the German reunification experience, there were no registered changes in the division of the Corean Peninsula. However, it is undeniable that starting from 1989 less and less tension between the great powers changed the power balance in East Asia, allowing for a cooperation between the two rivals.
WORKING PAPER #20 – Cristina Montalvão Sarmento
20 WORKING PAPERS INVESTIGAR EM CIÊNCIA POLÍTICA
The more or less sophisticated debate in all public means of daily political action seem to empty the object of political science before its application. This inconvenient is stressed by the variety of genres and multiplicity of perspectives which characterise the comtemporary production of political science. At Observatório Político, research in political science manifests itself in the making of twenty working papers in 2012, which express the freedom of researching political studies in Portugal.
WORKING PAPER #19 – Bruno G. Bernardes
A HISTÓRIA DO PARTIDO DOS TRABALHADORES: UMA NARRATIVA BRASILEIRA
Since its foundation and up until the 2002 Presidential elections the Brazilian Workers’ Party has come a long way. Internal affairs between factions show how profound ideological and organizational transformations helped to recreate a centralized institution, meaning that the party became something else than what its foundation principles meant. Taking this into account, I argue that the Workers’ Party merely accompanied the historical processes that ideological and institutionally shape the Brazilian parties.
WORKING PAPER #18 – Ana Filipa Guardião
NACIONALISMOS DE OPOSIÇÃO – COMUNISTAS E RADICAIS DE DIREITA NO PERÍODO DO ESTADO NOVO SALAZARISTA
Wrapped in a profound debate since it took shape, the term nationalism has acquired many facets and interpretations that arise in a spectrum divided into two main schools: the nation as civic and political, which comes from the Anglo-French, based on Emmanuel Sieyès, Stuart Mill and Ernest Renan, and the nation as a product of a cultural process of a given population, based on the positions of Herder and Fichte.
WORKING PAPER #17 – Maria João Cabrita
SUSAN SONTAG E OS DIREITOS HUMANOS
Susan Sontag’s (1933-2004) struggle on behalf of human rights, minorities and the cultural and democratic plurality of different peoples, represent one of the deepest marks of her intellectual path and reveals the writer’s conviction on the idea that art, specially photography, pays a moral due to humanity.
WORKING PAPER #16 – Paulo Barcelos
A POLÍTICA COMO ANAMNESE: HISTÓRIA E DEVER DE MEMÓRIA EM BENJAMIN E LEVINAS
One might draw an initial interpretational approach in this text, a text based on a poem by Nelly Sachs. In the poem – an elegy to the dead, to their “inexpugnable” and “only of blessings built/ fortress” – is the common purpose pronounced, a purpose which excites Benjamin as much as Levinas in the pursuit of the deepening of the relationship of the subject to the past and to those which inhabited that the time that is no longer.
WORKING PAPER #15 – Suzano Costa e Odair Varela
(DES) CONSTRUINDO O DISCURSO LEGITIMADOR DA CPLP: COMUNIDADE “LUSÓFONA” OU FICTÍCIA?
The perspectivist deconstruction of the political phenomena allow us to conceptualise the emergence of the CPLP as a political and institutional figurine rather feeble and incapable of affirming itself externally in an international context characterised by the management of complex interdependence, by the centrifugal challenges of globalisation and centripetal challenges of regionalisation, and by the demands of multipolar and interdependent geopolitics.
WORKING PAPER #14 – Teresa Furtado
MUSEALIZAÇÃO DO HOLOCAUSTO
As João Medina tells us, the Holocaust represents the most urgent wound of the XXth century’s memory. The impossibility to explain it in logical ways, through an argumentation that actuates simultaneously upon an act of reason without ignoring, nevertheless, the eminently emotional character that underlies its understanding, imposes, therefore, to the analysis of the concentrationary network of the camp its first and crudest barrier: how? Such question goes beyond its own intention by pushing the observer to an indefinite field where the historical memory’s weight combines with the horror that it faces.
WORKING PAPER #13 - Jorge Botelho Moniz
SECULARIZAÇÃO: INÍCIOS, MEIO E PARADOXOS MODERNOS
What is secularisation? How does it evolve? How does secularization express itself nowadays? These are some of the questions this paper addresses. With its origins found in the Western Roman Empire downfall, through the completion of the separation of powers in the liberal revolutions and entering the XXIst century, we find that the secular States face four paradoxes, which is demand an effort to reflect on concepts like neutrality, freedom and equality of the Secular Empire that they built.
WORKING PAPER #12 – José Pereira da Costa
The Jean-Marc Ferry ideal of Europe is inspired in the Cosmopolitism German philosophers, from Kant to Habermas, having actually assisted him and translating some of his works to french. In these days of intense drama about the future of the European Union, which might be in dangerous due to merely economically and financials reasons, it is important to remember the European project it’s not solely based in the potential survival of the single currency and the Euro zone. Thus, it is in our benefit to study in depth those who reflect on these issues.
WORKING PAPER #11 - Luís Manuel Elias
DESAFIOS DA SEGURANÇA NA SOCIEDADE GLOBALIZADA
Security constitutes an alienable right-duty increasingly threatened in today’s globalised societies. The challenges proposed to the States and the international community are so overwhelming that imply overcoming the conceptual and exclusivisity standstill and the implementation of structural, integrated and multidimensional approaches, also helping overcome the problems resulting from globalization and substantiate the opportunities and advantages for supranational organisations, States and citizens.WORKING PAPER #10 - Carlos Oliveira Santos TEORIA POLÍTICA E ENGENHARIA SOCIAL A POLÉMICA POPPER VS HAYEK
This paper studies the polemic between Karl Popper and Friedrich Hayek, centred in the legitimacy of the so-called social engineering, as a systematic process of promotion and range of changes, in the perspective of interventions, focusing on the changes of social behaviours of democratic societies, often incorporated in public policies.
WORKING PAPER #9 – Francisco Carvalho Vicente
POLÍTICA MEDIATIZADA: A TELEVISÃO E A CONFIGURAÇÃO DO DISPOSITIVO DE COMUNICAÇÃO POLÍTICAThis article addresses the close relations between communication and power, focusing its analysis in the mediatisation of politics. Particularly, it features the way television conditioned the exercise of power and its repercussions on the construction of speeches and political action. On this point, it will be demonstrated a set of trends in Portugal, in the dictatorship and democracy periods. WORKING PAPER #8 – Raquel Duque AVIAÇÃO CIVIL E SEGURANÇA INTERNACIONAL The 9/11 terrorist attacks in the United State provoked a series of studies about phenomenon of terrorism and its impact in civil aviation safety: questions which this paper will approach. It is important to find out the relation between terrorism and civil aviation, which is as old as the development of civil aviation itself. It is also significant to analyse, on one hand, the multiplicity of terrorist acts perpetrated using the civil aviation sector, and on the other hand, the answers given by a complex network of international organisations, including its inherent subjectivities and respective normative processes, in order to guarantee international security. WORKING PAPER #7 – Paulo Carvalho Vicente FEDERALISMO EUROPEU: SENTIDO, ALCANCE E O LUGAR DE PORTUGAL Currently, federalism is one of the subjects most discussed, resulting from the delicate position the European Union stands. Discussing this theme implies recognising its historical origins and the characteristics of an organisational model of power arrangement. This working paper aims at deepening this debate and focus on how the positions of the Portuguese governments towards federalism and European integration evolved. Simultaneously, these positions must be framed in the national state of affairs, in which each government was implicated.
WORKING PAPER #6 – Diogo Noivo
A PRIMAVERA ÁRABE E A PARTICIPAÇÃO ELEITORAL ISLAMISTA
The wave of protests known as the Arab spring looked as a much delayed appeal to the creation of democracies in Magreb and in the Middle East. However, the victory of the islamist parties in the elections that followed the fall of the authoritarian regimes provoked a series of doubts about the future, namely the concerns about the intention of the voters and the islamists’ political projects. Indeed, it is important to firstly understand what islamism is in order to try to decipher the meaning and the potential consequences of the electoral victories. More than a definitive analysis about this theme, the present working paper aims at contributing to the debate about the challenges created by the recently political alterations that happened in the Arab world.
WORKING PAPER #5 – Patrícia Oliveira
O QUE PODEMOS SABER SOBRE POLÍTICA E ARTE É SUFICIENTE?
The introduction of new techniques, the haste of the production mechanisms and the standards of consumption, the diversity of images and the emergence of new forms of artistic expression put us in the explanatory limit between theory and practice; between what we can recognise as political matter and non-political matter. If what we can know about politics and art is enough, that will depend of the development of research about the possible relations between both. What we can know about politics and art is enough? Even if is not enough, it is certainly necessary to comprehend partly of the hybrid gathering of interactions who mark the contemporary reality.
WORKING PAPER #4 - Sara Reis
A REPRESENTAÇÃO DE INTERESSES NAS POLÍTICAS DE GÉNERO DA UNIÃO EUROPEIA
The EU has a complex system of interest representation, with characteristics that differ according to the type of politics being discussed, and the interest groups and European institutions who participate in a specific legislative process. In relation to gender policies, the system of interest representation is varied: if on one hand there is a corporatist mechanism institutionalised, on the other hand the atavism of the Commission and of the European Parliament in hearing the social interests and its own finances, adds neo-pluralists characteristics to this system.WORKING PAPER #3 – Rui Estêvão Alexandre O MAPA AUTÁRQUICO PORTUGUÊS DE PEQUENAS MEDIDAS A GRANDES REFORMAS The national municipal map has more or less the same form of the one it had a century and a half ago. In this working paper it will be presented a series of questions related with the crystallisation of the political map of the local power and its imprint to our daily realities. It will not be presented concrete solutions, doubts and worries. These will be developed in forthcoming scientific works. WORKING PAPER #2- Carlos Vargas CONSTRUIR TEATROS E CINETEATROS EM PORTUGAL: “NOVOS PALCOS PARA OS ARTISTAS, NOVOS ESPECTÁCULOS PARA O PÚBLICO” This working paper represents a part of a bigger research in progress. The possibility of a cultural decentralisation, associated to an unusual financial capacity originated from the European Union, has led to the renewal and construction of theatres and cine-theatres in continental Portugal, since 1997. Considering that other governments had created programmes of support to these cultural facilities, it was the XIIIth Constitutional Government who gave visibility and expression to a political measure of the central administration of the State, which transformed the Portuguese landscape of the performing arts.
WORKING PAPER #1 – Joana Carvalho Costa
A REFORMA DO SECTOR DA SEGURANÇA E A PREVENÇÃO E COMBATE À CORRUPÇÃO NAS INSTITUIÇÕES DE DEFESA E SEGURANÇA
The starting point of this work is an approach to the context in which emerged the reform of the security sector, as well as its characteristics and forms of action. From here it is developed a parallel between processes of the reform of security sector and the role of the processes of prevention and fight against corruption in security and defence institutions. This comparative analysis serves as a reflexion about the integration and complementarity between the two processes, pointing to ways for a bigger maximisation of cooperation between both.